Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Ghazali vvas born in the city of , northern Persia (Iran), in theyear 1058/450H.
His father, a wool spinner, used to enjoy the company of preachers and scholars and prayed that his sons would be like them. Ghazali, became 'the most scholarly person of his generation and the imam of his time'; his brother Ahmed 'an awe-inspiring preacher' (Al Sabki p.94). Through them, their father's prayers were ansvvered.
After their father's death, the broth-ers, along with their inheritance, were entrusted to a poor ascetic. When the inheritance ran out, the ascetic con-mended them to pursue their education in a school where they might be finan-cially supported. Ghazali excelled as a student. He used to 'thirst after com-prehension of things as they are' (Watt, p.21). He recalls: 'we studied 'um, knovvledge, for other than Allah, but it refused to be studied except for Allah.' (Zabidi,p.l94).
He left for Jurjan, where he took notes on the lectures of Abu Nasr al-Isma'ili. On his return journey, he was waylaid by a highwayman. He pleaded only for his notebooks. The highvvay-man mocked: 'How can you cali your-self a scholar, when, if I take your books you have lost your knovvledge?' His books vvere returned to him, and, as a result of the incident, he spent the next three years memorizing his notes, so that 'no highvvayman could rob him of his knowledge' (Sabki, p. 195).
He travelled to Naisabur, the largest town in Khorasan and studied there under imam al-Haramain, 'Abd al-Malik al-Juwaini. After his sheikh's death, he headed for the Seljuk camp of the Sultan Nizam al-Mulk in Baghdad. The scholars of Baghdad recognised Ghazali's excellence and he was soon appointed head of the Nizamiya school. it was whilst in this position that he became famous and involved himself in the political and religious disputes of the time.
In 1093/485H, Ghazali renounced celebrity and public influence for devo-tional retreat. He spent long periods in contemplation in the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus. He also visited Makkah several times. it was in 1097/489H, that, at the grave of the Prophet Abraham, he concluded never 'to receive money from any ruler, nor to greet any ruler r to be inspector ver anyone' (Ghazali, p.85). On his way home to , he travelled through Baghdad, but, upholding his vow, he stayed at the retreat of Abu Sa'id al-Naisaburi and did not visit its rulers. it was there that he told of the work he had carried out in recluse and the resulting book ihya 'Ulum al-Din. On arrival in , he concentrated on wor-ship and teaching until, on seeing the poor state of education, he returned to Naisabur and the public defence of the Suma using the teachings of his book ihya, until on Monday 14 Jumadi al-Akhira 1113/505H when, after praying his morning prayers, he told his brother Ahmed to prepare for his funeral. He died that day and vvas buried next to the imam Ali Rida in Mashad, Iran.
Philosophy of Education among the Muslims before Ghazali
Ghazali's philosophy contained noth-ing that could not be traced back to the Qur'an and Sunna.
The Islanic philosophy of education dravvs largely on the stories in the Qur'an as its primary source. An example is the story in which Allah teaches Adam the meaning of 'things', and then instructs him to teach the Angels. Among other stories in the Qur'an used by Muslim educationalists to justify their philosophy is the story of Musa and Khidr and the numerous stories of the Prophets and their disci-ples.
The Prophet Muhammad, upon whom be peace, advised many of his Companions how to teach. He told Muadh bin Jabal and Abi Musa vvhen they vvent to the Yemen: 'Make things easy and do not make things difficult, teach and do not chase avvay' (Bukhari). On another occasion he said: 'Teach and do not rebuke for the teacher is better than the ne vvho rebukes.' (Tayalasi)
'Schools' in the form of 'study cir-cles' vvere established during the time of the Prophet Muhammad and the frst four Caliphs. These 'learning centres' developed around the prominent com-panions.
Although the sayings of Muhammad, upon whom be peace, and the main companions concerning education vvere not recorded together, they vvere contained in scattered collections and transmitted practically \\vherever schools existed.
The first book expounding the edu-cational philosophy of islam vvas adab al-muallimin by Muhammad bin Ãžahmn. This vvas follovved by books by Ibn Jizar al-Qairawani and Abu Hasan al Qabini.'
Ghazali's ihya is a milestone in the development of educational philosophy because it brought together and simplified many of the ideas of his predeces-sors. Most subsequent \\vritings on Islamic teaching philosophy merely abridged r commented upon his work.
Ghazali's vvritings on edu-cation
Among Ghazali's writings on edu-cation are the follovving:
Ihya 'Ulum al-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences)
Ghazali's ihya, written during his period of retreat, is probably his most important and well known work. The first of its forty books is Kitab al-Ilm, The Book of Knowledge. This, along with the section on riyadat al-atfal, (Children's Play) contains Ghazali's most direct references to education.
Ayyuha l-Walad, (Oh Son)
This short text was written after ihya in response to a request from ne of his students. Its title expresses Ghazali's view that the teacher is like a father to his student.
Bidayat al-Hdaya (The Beginning of Guidance)
The first chapter of this short text is often read by the novice to his sheikh as a type of initiation. it contains a warn-ing about insincerity in seeking knowledge and a description of the various types of scholar and student.
Minhaj al-Mutalim (The Student's System)
There is some controversy ver whether this book can rightly be attrib-uted to Ghazali.2 Its content is similar to Ayyuha l-Walad and it is thought to be possibly a summary of Ghazali's writ-ings on education.
AH but the last of the vvritings men-tioned above have been translated into English.
AL-SABKI (n.d) Tabaqat al-Shafiat al-Kubra,
vol. 6, Dar al-Marifa, Cairo. AL-ZABIDI (n.d) Itihaf Sadat al-Mutaqin,
AL GHAZALÃ (n.d.) Fada 'il al-Anam, Cairo BUKHARI (1975) Sahih: Book of Knowledge,
TAYALASI (n.d.) Maqasid al-Hasanah, Cairo WATT W.M. (1953) Faith and practice of
Ghazali (trans. of Munqidh min al-Dalaf),
1. Ibn Jizar Al Qairawani d.395H/1003c.e. who
wrote Siyostu Sibyan wa Tadbiraha. Abu
Hasan Ali bin Muhammad Al Qabiti
d.463H/1072c.e. wrote Adab al-Mualimeen
2. According to Haji Khalifa it is the work of
Ghazali. However it is not mentioned in
VVo/iot al-'Ayn r Shadharat al-Dhahab r the
History ofDamascus by Ibn Asakir.